Известные имена

Ауэзов М. О.

Auezov m oAuezov Mukhtar Omarkhanovich (1897-1961) - an outstanding writer, public figure, scientist, Doctor of Philology, Professor, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan (1946), Honored Scientist (1957), member of the Alash movement.

Born on September 28, 1897 in the Shyngystau tract of the Semipalatinsk region of the Russian Empire (now the East Kazakhstan region of the Republic of Kazakhstan). He studied at the village school. Grandfather Auez, a friend of Abai Kunanbaev, had a great influence on the formation of the worldview of the future writer. In 1908, Auezov studied at the Kamaliddin Madrasah, then at the preparatory courses of the Russian school. In 1909, he lost his father, and his uncle Kasymbek took him up, who placed him in the Semipalatinsk city five-year school on a zemstvo scholarship (1910-1915). In the fifth grade of the school, Mukhtar wrote his first work "Dauyl" («Into the storm»). In 1915 he entered the teacher's seminary in the city of Semipalatinsk (now the city of Semey). In 1917 he wrote the tragedy play "Enlik-Kebek" based on the dastan "Zholsyz Zhaz" by Shakarim Kudaiberdy. Political upheavals in Russia (1917), the formation of the Alash movement (1917) and the establishment of Soviet power (1917) changed his life. Auezov organizes the union of "Alash Youth", contributes to the opening of various circles, writes articles for the newspapers "Alash" and "Saryarka". May 5–13, 1918, at the General Kurultai (Congress) of Kazakh youth in Omsk, he was elected a member of the central executive committee. An active participant in the formation of the All-Kazakh youth organization "Zhas azamat", expressing the interests of the Alash movement. In the city of Semipalatinsk (now the city of Semey), together with Zhusupbek Aimauytov, he publishes the scientific and social magazine "Abay", which publishes scientific and educational materials and articles on social topics that promote the idea of ​​​​creating a civilized national democratic society. After the publication of 13 issues, the magazine is closed. After the abolition of the Alashorda government, M. Auezov is engaged in underground activities. In 1919 he graduated from the Semipalatinsk Teacher's Seminary. Since 1919, Mukhtar was an employee of the Kazakh branch of the Semipalatinsk provincial revolutionary committee. From February 1920 - head of the department of the Semipalatinsk provincial revolutionary committee. Publishes the newspaper "Kazakh tili" ("Kazakh language"). In the "Open Letter" to the Kazakh reader, he calls on the people to actively participate in public life. In the same year, Auezov divorced Raykhan Kakenkyzy and married Abai's granddaughter Kamila Magauiyakyzy. Since 1921, he has been working in the Semipalatinsk Regional Revolutionary Committee. From November to May 1921, political secretary - member of the presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Kazakh ASSR.

The magazine "Kyzyl Kazakhstan" (No. 3-4, 1921) publishes Auezov's story "Korgansyzdyn kuni" ("The fate of the defenseless"). The second version of the play "Enlik-Kebek" ("Teke - Oral") is being printed. Auezov's plays "Baybishe-toqal", "El, agasy" were staged in the Kazakh theater.

In 1921-1922, Auezov criticized the policy of repression of the Kazakh intelligentsia and the economic pressure of Moscow. On March 7, 1922, together with Smagul Saduakasov, a member of the Central Executive Committee of the Kazakh ASSR, they protested the Bolshevik policy and handed a letter to the representative of the Central Committee of the RCP (b) V. G. Yudovsky, which outlined political, economic and social demands. The main ones - on national independence, the elimination of hunger, the return of confiscated lands to the Kazakhs, the involvement of Kazakhs in production, the announcement of the Kazakh language as the state language, the development of national education, science and the press - were considered at meetings of the presidium of the Kazakh regional committee of the RCP (b).

On March 11-20, 1922, M. Auezov and S. Saduakasov were declared "Alash Orda nationalists."

In 1922, “Korgansyzdyn kuni” and “Enlik-Kebek” were published as a separate book in Orenburg.

In the fall of 1922, Auezov entered the Central Asian State University (CASU) in the city of Tashkent as a volunteer, where he collaborated with the magazines Sholpan and Sana. Publishes the stories "Kyr angimeleri" ("Steppe stories"), "Uilenu" ("Wedding"), etc.

In 1923, he was expelled from the ranks of the RCP (b). In the same year he entered the Faculty of Philology at the Leningrad State University. In 1924-1925 he taught at the Semipalatinsk Teachers' College on behalf of the People's Commissariat of Education of the Kazakh ASSR. He published the magazine "Tan", which published the stories "Kіnamshіl boyzhetken", "Karaly sulu" ("Beauty in mourning"), "Eskіlіk kolenkesіnde" ("In the shadow of the past"), "Zhuandyk" ("Violence"). In 1925 he returned to Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) and continued his studies. In 1926, he organized a scientific expedition to Semipalatinsk (now Semey) to study the Kazakh folklore heritage, writes the play "Karagoz". In 1927, the monograph "Adebiyet Tarihy" was published. In 1927-1929. publishes a 20-volume complete collection of Abai's manuscripts. In January 1928, he wrote the novel "Kily Zaman" ("Wild Years"), and in February the play "Khan Kene". In 1928, he entered the graduate school of CASU in Tashkent. While studying in graduate school, in the summer, traveling through the Kyrgyz steppes, he studies and writes down the Manas epic. 1929-1930 dedicates himself to scientific work and migration issues.

September 16, 1930 arrested by the OGPU. A number of accusations are brought against him, among which are the organization of an underground struggle against the Soviet regime and participation in the preparation of an armed uprising to overthrow it; speaking out against the confiscation of the property of the wealthy; the formation of the national-bourgeois organization "Alka"; writing works praising the pre-revolutionary life and life of the Kazakh people. Was under investigation for 2 years. In April 1932, a decision was made on conditional imprisonment for a period of three years.

On May 10, 1932, Auezov was forced to speak in an “Open Letter” through the newspapers “Socialdy Kazakhstan” and “Kazakhstanskaya Pravda” with a statement about the rejection of his works “Karagoz”, “Enlik-Kebek”, “Khan Kene”, “Kyly Zaman” and research works on the history of Kazakh literature. Auezov gets a temporary job as a teacher of the Kazakh language and literature at the Kazakh Agricultural Institute, concurrently - head of the literary department of the Kazakh Drama Theater. From September 1932 M. O. Auezov was a senior lecturer, professor at the Kazakh Pedagogical Institute. He writes plays, prose (stories, novels) “October Ushin” (1932), “Aiman-Sholpan” (1933), “Tartys” (1933), “Shoulder to Shoulder” (“Bіlikke Bіlek”, 1934), “Three Days "("Ush kүn", 1934), "Transformations of Khasen" ("Kasennin kubylystary", 1934), "Tungі saryn" (1934), "Tastulek" (1935), "Akan-Zayra" (1935), "Traces" (“Izder”, 1935), “Steepness” (“Shatkalan”, 1935), “Sand and Askar” (“Kұm men Askar”, 1935), “Eskіlіk kөlenkesіnde” (“In the shadows of the past”, 1935), “Karash -Karash" (1936). In 1936, Auezov was a participant in the decade of Kazakh literature and art in Moscow, a delegate of the Union of Writers of the Kazakh ASSR.

Continues to write plays and prose: "Alma bagynda" (1937), "Shekarada" (1937), "Burkitshi" ("Berkutchi", 1937), "Ak kayyn" (1938), "Becket" (1938), "Kalkaman - Mamyr" (1938), "Abay" (1940).

Translates the works of N. V. Gogol, A. Afinogenov, N. Pogodin, K. Trenev, V. Shakespeare, stories of L. N. Tolstoy, J. London into Kazakh. . Together with L. Sobolev, he publishes the collection Dala Zhyry (Song of the Steppes, 1940), writes a preface to the collection. In 1941 he finished the novel "Abay". The release of this novel was a significant event in the cultural life of Kazakhstan. During the Great Patriotic War, he wrote the plays "Son of Sagat" (1941), "Namys Guards" (1942), together with A. Abishev).

In 1943, Auezov was a researcher at the Research Institute of Language, Literature and History, professor of the Kazakh literature department of the Kazakh State University, where he taught until the end of his days. He writes the libretto for the opera "Abai" (1944), "Kynaptan kylysh" (1945 ) and the script for the film "Abai Anderi" ("Songs of Abai", 1945). In 1946, Auezov began work on the second book about Abai, which was published in 1947. Since 1946, he has been an academician of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan, Doctor of Philology, Professor. Author of the "History of Literature of the Kazakh SSR", head of the author's scientific team of the publication "History of Kazakh Soviet Literature" (1947). novel "Abay". In 1951, Auezov was awarded the Order of the Badge of Honor. In 1951-1954. began a campaign of criticism of Auezov's work. He is called a "National Alash Orda", accused of publishing works of Kazakh folklore containing elements of propaganda against Russia; glorification of feudalism in the novel "Abay", distortion of the history of Kazakhstan and the history of Kazakh literature. In 1953, under the threat of arrest, he was forced to leave for Moscow. Auezov was defended by Russian writers - members of the Union of Writers of the USSR - A. Fadeev, K. Simonov, V. Kozhevnikov, N. Tikhonov. In 1953 - 1954 taught a special course "History of Literature of the Peoples of the USSR" at Moscow State University. In 1954 he returned to Almaty and finished the epic novel "The Way of Abai". In 1955 - 1957, the Complete Works of Auezov were published in 6 volumes. In 1955, he was elected a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR, became an honored guest of the GDR Writers' Congress in Berlin, and made a 40-day trip to India..

In 1956, the play "Bes dos" was published. In 1956, he was awarded the second Order of the Red Banner of Labor, in 1957, the Order of Lenin. Jubilee celebrations are held in the cities of Almaty and Moscow on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the writer. In 1957 - 1961 he was the head of the department of oral folk literature of the Institute of Language and Literature of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR.

Auezov's works "Dos-Bedel dos" (1958), "Alua" (1958) are published. In 1958, Auezov participated in the 1st conference of Asian and African writers in Tashkent.

The works “Asyl nasilder” (1959), “Thoughts of different years” (1959) and the monograph “Abai (Ibragim) Kunanbaev” (1959) are published. In 1959, he was elected a deputy of the Supreme Council of the Kazakh SSR for the second time. For the epic novel "The Way of Abai" Auezov was awarded the Lenin Prize.

He published collections of works "Karash-Karash" (1960), the novel "Osken Orken" (1960 - 1961).

In 1960 - a trip to America, 1961 - to India. Auezov died on June 27, 1961 in Moscow during an operation. He was buried on July 1 at the central cemetery in Almaty. The Institute of Literature and Art, the Kazakh Academic Drama Theatre, streets and schools in the cities of Almaty, Astana, Semipalatinsk (now Semey) and others were named after M. Auezov. A house-museum of Auezov was created in Almaty. The works of artists and sculptors K. Telzhanov, M. Kenbaev, S. Mambeev, E. Sidorkin, E. Vuchetich, N. Nurmukhambetov and others are devoted to the study of the life and creative heritage of Auezov. Monuments to the writer were erected in all regions of the republic. A 12-episode film about the great writer (author A. Toybaeva) was shot on Kazakh television.

The works of M. Auezov were repeatedly republished and translated into many languages of the world.

According to the decision of UNESCO in 1997, the 100th anniversary of the birth of M. Auezov was celebrated all over the world.

Literature about M. O. Auezov

Алаш. Алашорда [Мәтін] : энциклопедия / құраст.: Ғ. Әнес, С. Смағұлова. - Алматы : Арыс, 2009. – Әуезов Мұхтар Омарханұлы: б. 78-85.

Тілешов, Е. Алаш қозғалысы [Мәтін] : энциклопедиялық анықтамалық / Е. Тілешов, Д. Қамзабекұлы. - Алматы : Сардар, 2014. - 528 б. – Әуезов Мұхтар Омарханұлы: б. 98-100.

Шығыс Қазақстан облысы [Мәтін] : энциклопедия. - Алматы : Қазақ энциклопедиясы, 2014. - Әуезов Мұхтар Омарханұлы:  б. 226-227. 

Bibliographic materials

Бөжеев, М. Мұхтар Әуезов . Библиографиялық көрсеткiш [Мәтін] / М. Бөжеев.- Алматы: Мектеп, 1966.- 73 б.

Мұхтар Әуезов. Ұсынылатың әдебиеттер көрсеткіші [Мәтін] = Мухтар Ауэзов. Рекомендательный указатель литературы / құр. Т. Кененова және т. б. - Алматы : Қазақстан, 1968. - 103 б.

М.О. Әуезов шығармашылығы бойынша библиографиялық көрсеткiш=Библиографический указатель по творчеству М.О. Ауэзова [Мәтін] / Әуезов үйi" ғылыми - мәдени орт., М.О. Әуезов атын. Әдебиет және Өнер ин-ты, ҚР Ұлттық кiтапханасы ; құраст.: Д.А. Қонаев, Б.Қ. Майтанов, А.Қ. Қуанышбаев ж.б..- Алматы: Жiбек жолы, 2009.- 376 б.

Internet links

Әуезов Мұхтар Омарханұлы [Электрондық ресурс] : [өмірбаян] // bnews.kz – ақпараттық-аналитикалық порталы : сайт. – Пайдалану орны : http://bnews.kz/kz/persons/auezov_muhtar_omarhanuli (22.02.2017)

"Мұхтар Әуезов әлемі" электрондық кітапханасы [Электрондық ресурсы] . - Сайт. - Режим доступа : http://auezov.kz/page.php?lang=3  (дата обращения 22.02.2017)

Ауэзов Мухтар Омарханович [Электронный ресурс] : [биография]  // Кино-Театр.Ру : сайт. – Режим доступа http://www.kino-teatr.ru/kino/screenwriter/sov/27756/bio/ (22.02.2017)

Ауэзов, М. МУХТАР АУЭЗОВ   (1897-1961) [Электронный ресурс] : [биография] / М. Ауэзов, Д. Кунаев // Научно-культурный центр «Дом Ауэзова» : сайт. – Режим доступа : http://old.unesco.kz/heritagenet/kz/participant/museum/auezov_mus/rus/auezov.htm (22.02.2017)

Дом-музей М.О. Ауэзова [Электронный ресурс]. - Сайт: Институт литературы и искусства имени М. О. Ауэзова Министерства образования и науки Республики Казахстан. - Режим доступа: http://litart.kz/index.php/ru/dom-muzej-m-o-auezova (дата обращения 4.07.2016)

Мухтар Ауэзов [Электронный ресурс] : [биография] // yvision.kz  : сайт. – Режим доступа : http://yvision.kz/post/460536 (22.02.2017)

 Ум и душа эпохи - Мухтар Ауэзов [Электронный ресурс] : [биография] // articlekz.com : сайт. – Режим доступа : http://articlekz.com/article/8244 (22.02.2017)

Произведения, вышедшие после 2018 года смотреть в электронном каталоге http://pushkinlibrary.kz/ru/